M02 National Museum of Science (Kahaku)

♣ National Museum of Nature and Science (“Kahaku”)
The exhibit of National Museum widely covers all round objects from natural science, humanities, to the various technology items.

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The “Kahaku” is Japan’s only nationally administered comprehensive science museum, and is a central institute for research in natural history and history of science and technology. It also serve as a guardian of a valuable collection of over 4 million specimens.

Accsess: 7-20 Ueno Park, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8718
5 minutes walk from JR Ueno Station
Tel: +81-3-5777-8600

  • Main spots to visit in the field of Manufacturing Technology in Japan -History and Significance
  1. Rocket engineering development with current challengs
  2. Infant period technology development in 19c
  3. challenges of technology modernization in Meiji era and afterwards
  4. Origin of automobile technology development in Japan
  5. Pre-war industrial technology – Airplane and TV image making
  6. Japanese unique calculator technology – Japanese manufacturing power had bloomed
  • Total Map of Exhibition of “Kahaku” (National Museum of Science)

MM=National Museum_02The “Kahaku” ‘s exhibition hall comprises two main departments, Japan Gallery and Global Gallery. The fields coverage is shown in the following map.
This introduction section of IGS-Forum shows only on the Industrial technology area  among the huge exhibition of National Museum collections.
See the following URL:   http://shinkan.kahaku.go.jp/floor/2f_en.html

Space Technology Development in Japan

How Japan challenged the space development from the beginning

Beginning in 1955 with the pencil rocket, by 1970s Japan’s space development had come as far as launching an artificial satellite. In 1969, development of Japan was able to launch into stationary orbit its own weather satellite using a large rocket produced purely domestically.

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– Pencil Rocket
(23×1.8cm 190g 1955)
– S-160 Rocket
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 H-IIA Rocket
H.Hirakawa developed the solid-fuel thrust rocket in 1954, envisaged revival of post-War civil aviation from the scratch. This is the dawn of Japanese space industry.

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Space Flyer Unit (SFU)

The SFU is basic instrument to operate by own power, and mounts astronomical observation  systems including infrared telescope and other engineering experiments.

Source: http://shinkan.kahaku.go.jp/kiosk/100/chikyu_con/A2/19/001394@lang=eng.html

Beginning of Japanese Engineering

Science and Technology in the Edo Period (19c)
This exhibit section shows some Japanese inventions from the Edo period onwards. As you can see from the many inventions, Japanese culture maintains its unique identity and its close communion with nature, while at the same time having interaction with foreign cultures. An understanding of science and technology in Japan can help guide our future.

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Japanese Telescope in 19c

Mathematical Books in Edo & Japanese Telescope in 19c
(In the Edo era many scientific tools and machines were introduced and developed by Japanese poeple)

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The Myriad-year Clock

57 cm in height and decorated with cloisonné, lacquer work and mother-of pearl, this large standing spring-driven clock was made in 1851 by H. Tanaka in the Edo Period

  • Beginning of Modernization of Science and Technology ; Dawn of Japanese engineering technology
    The Meiji Restoration (1896) brought great impact to Japanese social life and development of science and technology in Japan. Here’s the evidences.

Beginning of Modernization of Science and Technology

Dawn of Japanese engineering technology

The Meiji Restoration (1896) brought great impact to Japanese social life and development of science and technology in Japan. Here’s the evidences.

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Standard Kilogram Scale was adopted by the Meiji Govt to start the modern scientific and industrial development
In order to encourage, Meiji govt. prioritized creating revision of the most basic system, such as currency, measurement, calendar, and time systems.

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Initial Mechanical Engineering skills and technology MM=National Museum_40003regarding precision metal processing.
Japan possessed very little precision technology of metal processing technology. They depended much on the bear hand to produce

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Brushn Arc Lamp was ontroduced by Fujioka 

The lamp was going to be widely used outdoor light in big city at ee J Lightning of Electric 02that time instead of former lantern or candles. The Brush arc lamp was illuminated in Tokyo Ginza area as a symbol of modernization. This is one of the contribution of Dr. fujioka’s  (Later Toshiba president) in the field of electric engineering development

Source: http://shinkan.kahaku.go.jp/kiosk/100/chikyu_con/A2/08/001074@lang=eng.html

Inventions and Creations by Japanese People after the Modernization – Automobile

An unending succession of small but significant achievement that amazed the world.

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Type G Automatic Loom (Replica exhibition) MM=National Museum XX06
Japan’s efforts to absorb new science and technology paid off in due course as it caught up with the West in various fields. The Type G Automatic Loom (Invented by Sakichi. Toyota), invented in 1924, was recognized by loom manufacturers internationally for its top performance and used in Japan and overseas.

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Atomo-go” Car (Replica exhibition)MM=National Museum XX07.jpg
Cars were first imported to Japan in 1899, and high expectations were held their utility.
At the end of the Taisho Period, some people took it upon themselves to developed cars suited to the road conditions in Japan. Among them, J. Toyokawa, founder of Hakuyosha, developed small passenger cars in 1934. It was called “Atomo-go”.

Source: http://shinkan.kahaku.go.jp/kiosk/100/chikyu_con/A2/14/001251@lang=eng.html

New Development of Engineering Technology –How ”Dentaku” Calculator was developed? –

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Tiger Calculating Machine (1923)
The oldest calculating machine made in Japan was an automatic abacus that Ryoichi Yazu obtained a patent for in 1903. It was sold as the Patented Yazu Arithmometer. After that several companies begun to sell similar calculating machines. Among them the Tiger calculating machine was so popular that the name Tiger became synonymous with auto calculator 1n 1920s onward. These machines actually cultivated the technology of recent “Dentaku” in Japan.

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How Japan developed own automatic calculator by adopting Western technology?

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FUJIC  Unit: FUJIC was the first electric computer to be operated in Japan using electric vacuum tubes (1956).
Casio 14A Model (Manufactured by Casio in 1957.) and Mr. Toshio Kashio (founder of Casio. He invented Casio 14-A))

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By 1970, a calculator could be made using just a few chips of low power consumption, allowing portable models powered from rechargeable batteries. The first portable calculators appeared in Japan in 1970, and were soon marketed around the world. These included the Sanyo ICC-0081 “Mini Calculator“, the Canon Pocketronic, and the Sharp QT-8B “Micro Compet“. And The Casio CM-602 Mini electronic calculator provided basic functions in the 1970s.Sharp put in great efforts in size and power reduction and introduced in January 1971 the Sharp EL-8, also marketed as the Facit 1111, which was close to being a pocket calculator. It weighed about 455 grams or one pound, had a vacuum fluorescent display, rechargeable NiCad batteries.

Source: http://shinkan.kahaku.go.jp/kiosk/100/chikyu_con/A2/18/001396@lang=eng.html

Please refer to the “Dentaku” Development in the  Historical Over View of this Igs-Forum and the Visit report of Casio Memorial Museum

Pre-War New Development of Engineering Technology

The combined expertise of the Japanese generates a succession of impressive machinery products.

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The first experimental TV Image making
Dr. Keijiro Takayanagi
commenced their research of photoelectric tubes in the 1920s. And he succeeded in displaying the Japanese syllabary symbol “イ” on a cathode ray tube in 19i Japan 26. This is the first image sending system which later led  developing the first TV broadcasting NHK in 1953.

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Zero Fighter Plane
The exhibited Zero Fighter is a model 21 plane remodeled into a two-seater reconnaissance plane. It is one of the two planes that were destroyed in the front line base in 1944. Zero fighter is famed as a legendary plane produced by Japanese engineers. This technology has been inherited to many machinery products like automobile and others.

Source: http://shinkan.kahaku.go.jp/kiosk/100/chikyu_con/A2/16/001322@lang=eng.html

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